Fable, Parable and Allegory are the same, basically. Allegory is a series of metaphors or symbols continued throughout a story so as to represent or describe one series of facts by another series that is analogous to it in its main features.
In most cases the object of such a story is to exemplify and enforce some moral truth. A Parable is a similar story, differing from an Allegory in that its details have no symbolical significance.
Thus the Parable of the Good Samaritan (St. Luke's Gospel - chapter X : 30 - 37) was intended to give an answer to the question - Who is my neighbour?
The Parable of the Ewe Lamb, which Nathan, the Prophet, communicated to King David (Old Testament – II : Sam - XLI) was intended to bring the king to a sense of his guilt by
relating to him a parallel case.
The Fables and stories of classical literature, in which birds and beasts are made to think, speak and act like men, all teach some moral. The story of the Old Man, his Son and
the Ass (for example) shows the folly of attempting to please everyone. The story of the Bundle of Sticks, which the young men could not break as long as they remained tied together, shows the power and value of unity.
In English literature the Pilgrim's Progress, by Bunyan, is one prolonged allegory, representing by the story of a pilgrim the difficulties and struggles through which the
Christian must pass before he can finally reach the land of promise.
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