Change of Direct Speech into Indirect Speech



Change of Direct Speech into Indirect Speech :



When direct speech is changed into indirect speech, changes occur in…

1. Tense
2. Personal Pronouns
3. Possessive Pronouns
4. Time

TIME :

If the reporting verb in the direct speech statement is in the present tense, it remains in the present tense in the indirect speech statement too.

For example :

My grandmother says, ‘If you do good to others, good things happen to you.’
My grandmother says that if you do good to others, good things happen to you.

In the above two sentences, you will notice that the verbs ‘says’, ‘do’, and ‘happen’ remain the same in the indirect speech. This is so because the reporting verb ‘says is in the present tense.

Kavita has said, “We will go to the zoo today.’
Kavita has said that we will go to the zoo today.

In the above two sentences, the verbs HAS SAID and WILL GO remain the same in the indirect speech. This is because the reporting verb HAS SAID is in the present perfect tense.

If the reporting verb in the direct speech statement is in the future tense, then it remains in the future tense in the indirect speech statement too.

For example :

Mrs. Preethi will say, ‘Students, you need to study regularly to get good marks.’
Mrs. Preethi will say that the students need to study regularly to get good marks.

In the above two sentences, the verbs WILL SAY and NEED remain the same in the indirect speech. This is so because the reporting verb WILL SAY is in the future tense. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, then the verbs within the inverted commas in the direct speech will undergo corresponding changes in the indirect speech statements.

Direct Speech : The boy said, ‘The dog is hungry.’
Indirect Speech : The boy said that the dog was hungry.

Present continuous becomes Past continuous.

The teacher said, “The children are writing the answers.’
The teacher said that the children were writing the answers.

Present perfect becomes Past perfect.

The Principal said, ‘All the students have gone home.’
The Principal said that all the students had gone home.

Past tense becomes Past perfect tense.

Rama said, ‘Kanchan arrived yesterday.’
Rama said that Kanchan had arrived the previous day.

Future tense becomes Simple past tense.

Govind said, ‘Geeta will read next.’
Govind said that Geeta would read next.

Convert the following from direct speech to the indirect speech.

1. Ratna said, ‘Harsh needs extra vitamins after his illness.’
2. Poonam says, ‘Cats are very clean animals.’
3. The gardener will say, ‘If the flowers are not given enough water, they will die.’
4. Yatin always says, ‘My father is the best father in the whole world.’
5. The teacher said, ‘Beena’s handwriting is the best.’
6. Teena will say, ‘Jai loves to trouble Harish.’
7. Mother says, “The vegetables in the neighbourhood market are very fresh.’
8. The Principal will say, ‘Monday is a holiday.’
9. Umang said, ‘AH the mangoes have been eaten up.’
10. Mrs. Natwar said, ‘My husband will go early to office on Friday.’

PERSONAL PRONOUNS :

I, we, you and so on become he, she, they, and so on.

For example :

Vijay said, ‘I will meet you at home.’
Vijay said that he would meet me at home.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS :

My, your, and so on become his, her, their, and so on.

For example :

Jeenal said, ‘I will give you my bottle only if you give me your pencil.”
Jeenal said that she would give him her bottle only if he gave her his box.

TIME :

Today, now and so on become that day, then, and so on.

For example :

Ravi said, “We will see the movie at the theatre tomorrow.’
Ravi said that they would see the movie at the theatre the next day.

Now becomes then.
Here becomes there.
Today becomes that day.
Tomorrow becomes the next day.
Tomorrow becomes the following day.
This becomes that.
These becomes those.
Tonight becomes that night.
Yesterday becomes the previous day.
Yesterday becomes the day before.

If the direct speech contains a universal truth, a scientific, mathematical, geographic or habitual fact, the tense does not change.

For example :

My teacher said, “The moon goes around the earth.’
My teacher said that the moon goes around the earth.

Sentences can be assertive, interrogative, exclamatory and imperative. Let us see how each of these types of sentences changes from a direct speech statement to an indirect speech statement.



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