Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions :

Classes of Conjunctions

Conjunctions are sub-divided into two main classes.

Co-ordinating Conjunctions are called so because they join words, phrases or clauses of co-ordinate (that is, of equal) rank.

Subordinating Conjunctions are called so because they join a sub-ordinate or dependent clause to a principal clause (that is…to a clause of higher rank).

Clauses are Coordinate when one is not dependent on the other and does not enter at all into its construction.

Clauses of equal rank can be combined together in four different ways and this gives rise to four different kinds of Coordinating Conjunctions.

(a) Cumulative Coordinating Conjunctions : By these one statement or fact is simply added to another.

(b) Alternative Coordinating Conjunctions : By these an alternative or choice is offered between one statement and another.

(c) Adversative Coordinating Conjunctions : By these one statement or fact is contrasted with or set against another.

(d) Illative Coordinating Conjunctions : By these one statement or fact is inferred or proved from another.

(a) Cumulative (addition) :

AND : The one received a prize and the other was promoted.

BOTH....AND… :

1. He was both surprised and gratified by his success.
2. Both the Mayor and the Corporation shook with fear.

AS WELL AS : He is guilty as well as you.


1. He was not only accused, but also convicted.

2. They are not only looted, but also their sister was killed.

(b) Alternative (choice) :


1. Either work harder or go elsewhere.


1. He was neither an idler nor a gambler.
2. Neither will I obey nor shall you send me packing.
3. Either you come to my rescue or your brother comes to my rescue.

(c) Adversative (contrast) :


1. He is sad, but hopeful.
2. They have own the match, but lost all their money.


1. Wise men love truth, whereas fools shun it.
2. Wise men love truth, while fools shun it.
3. He has come to this city, whereas his sister has gone to Mumbai.


1. Go where you like, only do not stay here.
2. He has come to meet you, only he will not interview you.

(d) Illative (inference) :


1. He will die some day, for all men are mortal.
2. They have to take this exam, for this is the first step to become an IAS.


  1. The Conjunction
  2. Conjunctions
  3. A Conjunction
  4. Classes of Conjunctions
  5. Coordinating Conjunctions
  6. Cumulative Coordinating Conjunctions
  7. Alternative Coordinating Conjunctions
  8. Adversative Coordinating Conjunctions
  9. Illative Coordinating Conjunctions
  10. Subordinating Conjunctions
  11. Sentences with Proper Conjunctions
  12. Conjunctions of Purpose
  13. Conjunctions of Comparison

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