Correct Usage of The Conjunctions



Correct Usage of The Conjunctions :



NO SOONER THAN

NO SOONER is always followed by THAN and never by BUT.

1. No sooner had he reached the station than the train left.
2. No sooner had I finished my exams than my parents came to pick me up.


SCARCELY BEFORE & SCARCELY WHEN

1. He had scarcely heard the news before he wept aloud.
2. He had scarcely heard the news when he wept aloud.


HARDLY BEFORE & HARDLY WHEN : Correct Usage of The Conjunctions

3. He had hardly heard the news before he wept aloud.
4. He had hardly heard the news when he wept aloud.


UNTIL, AS LONG AS & WHILE

To express time before, we use UNTIL.
To express time how long, we use AS LONG AS or WHILE.
But student are very apt to use UNTIL where they ought to use AS LONG AS.

1. I was waiting for you until 2 pm.
2. He was playing cricket until you came.
3. He played cricket as long as I played chess.
4. He played cricket while I played chess.

1. Until you work hard, you will improve. (Incorrect)
2. As long as you work hard, you will improve. (Correct)

1. He continued in his idle ways as long as he was seventeen years old. (Incorrect)
2. He continued in his idle ways until he was seventeen years old. (Correct)

1. Until it rains, we must stay inside the house. (Incorrect)
2. As long as it rains, we must stay inside the house. (Correct)

1. Until you stay here, you will find no time for work. (Incorrect)
2. As long as you stay here, you will find no time for work. (Correct)

1. Until the world lasts, the earth will go round the sun. (Incorrect)
2. While or so long as the world lasts, the earth will go round the sun. (Correct)


UNLESS & IF

The Conjunction UNLESS means if not. But in practice it is often confused with IF.

1. Unless you do not work hard, you will fail. (Incorrect)
2. If you do not work hard, you will fail. (Correct)

1. Unless you have no objection, I will come tomorrow. (Incorrect)
2. If you have no objection, I will come tomorrow. (Correct)

Also note the following : Correct Usage of The Conjunctions

1. I shall not do the work unless you do not pay me more money. (Incorrect)
2. I shall not do the work unless you pay me more money. (Correct)

1. You will fail unless you do not work harder. (Incorrect)
2. You will fail unless you work harder. (Correct)

1. Work hard lest you should not fail. (Incorrect)
2. Work hard lest you should fail. (Correct)

1. You will go on failing until you do not try hard. (Incorrect)
2. You will go on failing until you try hard. (Correct)


BECAUSE & IN ORDER THAT & SO THAT

To express a cause or reason we use BECAUSE.
To express a purpose we use IN ORDER THAT and SO THAT.

But they are often confused in practice.

1. Men work because they may earn a living. (Incorrect)
2. Men work that they may earn a living. (Correct)
3. Men work so that they may earn a living. (Correct)
4. Men work in order that they may earn a living. (Correct)

1. He took medicine because he might get well. (Incorrect)
2. He took medicine so that he might get well. (Correct)

1. He started early because he might not be late. (Incorrect)
2. He started early in order that he might not be late. (Correct)


SINCE : Correct Usage of The Conjunctions

The use of this word as an Adverb, a Conjunction or a Preposition has been explained already. ( Correct Usage of The Adverb SINCE )

The student must bear in mind that when it is used as a Conjunction it is never preceded and is always followed by a Verb in the Past Simple Tense.

1. Two years passed since my father has died. (Incorrect)
2. Two years have passed since my father died. (Correct)

1. It was a month since the festival began. (Incorrect)
2. It is a month since the festival began. (Correct)

1. A month passed since I am coming here. (Incorrect)
2. A month has passed since I came here. (Correct)

1. Two hours elapsed since he had fallen asleep. (Incorrect)
2. Two hours have elapsed since he fell asleep. (Correct)

1. It has been now a year since my friends had left. (Incorrect)
2. It is now a year since my friends left. (Correct)


BEFORE

The use of this word as an Adverb, a Conjunction or a Preposition has been explained already. ( Correct Usage of The Adverb BEFORE )

The student must bear in mind that whenever it is used as a Conjunction with reference to some future event, it is never followed by a Verb in the Future Tense, even if the Verb in the Principal Clause is future.

1. The crops will die before the rains will fall. (Incorrect)
2. The crops will die before the rains fall. (Correct)
3. The crops will die before the rains have fallen. (Correct)

1. You will leave India before three months will pass. (Incorrect)
2. You will leave India before three months pass. (Correct)
3. You will leave India before three months have passed. (Correct)


THAT : Correct Usage of The Conjunctions

This Conjunction should never be used before a sentence in Direct Narration.

This Conjunction should never be used before Interrogative Adverbs or Pronouns in Indirect Narration.

1. He said that 'I shall soon be there'. (Incorrect)
2. He said, 'I shall soon be there.'(Correct)

1. He asked that how long you would be absent. (Incorrect)
2. He asked how long you would be absent. (Correct)

1. Tell me that whether you will return soon. (Incorrect)
2. Tell me whether you will return soon. (Correct)

1. I wish to know that how much this book will cost. (Incorrect)
2. I wish to know how much this book will cost. (Correct)


BUT : Correct Usage of The Conjunctions

The uses of this word as a Preposition have been shown already.
( The Preposition - BUT )

Its uses as a Conjunction and as an Adverb have still to be dealt with.

(a) As a Subordinating Conjunction

1. It never rains, but it pours. (Proverb)

It never rains except that it pours or it never rains without pouring.

This use of BUT as a Subordinating Conjunction has arisen from the omission of the Conjunction THAT. If THAT were expressed, BUT would retain its original character as a Preposition signifying EXCEPT and the Noun-clause following it would be its Object.

(b) As a Subordinating Conjunction, with some Demonstrative Pronoun understood after it. It then has the force of WHO or WHICH + NOT.

1. No one saw that sight but went away shocked.

No one saw that sight except that he went away or who did not go away, shocked.

(c) As an Adversative Conjunction of the Co-ordinating class…

1. He is rich but discontented.

(d) As an Adverb in the sense of only..

2. There is but a plank between us and death. (Correct)
3. There is only a plank between us and death. (Correct)

4. We can but try. (Correct)
5. We can but try, even if we are not successful. (Correct)


LEST

This is a contraction of an old English phrase meaning BY WHICH THE LESS. In older English it was followed by the present Subjunctive.

1. Take heed lest you fall.
2. Take heed that you may not fall.

The Subjunctive is here used in the Optative sense. That is in the sense of wish or purpose. In modern English the Verb following this Conjunction is formed by the Auxiliary Verb SHOULD.

1. He worked hard lest he should fail. (Correct)
2. He worked hard so that he might not fail. (Correct)
3. He worked hard so as not to fail. (Correct)
( The Uses of The Subjunctive Mood )


EXCEPT and WITHOUT

EXCEPT and WITHOUT are sometimes wrongly used for UNLESS.

1. I shall not come except you need me. (Incorrect)
2. I shall not come unless you need me. (Correct)

3. He shall not stay without he conforms to the rules. (Incorrect)
4. He shall not stay unless he conforms to the rules. (Correct)


LIKE

The word LIKE is often wrongly used for AS.

1. Do it like I do. (Incorrect)
2. Do it as I do. (Correct)

1. She sings like her mother sings. (Incorrect)
2. She sings as her mother sings. (Correct)

The negatives NOT and NEVER must be followed by OR, for when a negative is used at the beginning of a sentence, its negative influence spreads over the whole sentence.

1. I have never spoken to her nor written to her. (Incorrect)
2. I have never spoken to her or written to her. (Correct)

1. She did not break it nor lose it. (Incorrect)
2. She did not break it or lose it. (Correct)


NEITHER and NOR

The Conjunction NEITHER must always be followed by NOR.

1. I have neither written to her or spoken to her. (Incorrect)
2. I have neither written to her nor spoken to her. (Correct)

3. Neither she or her brother knows me. (Incorrect)
4. Neither she nor her brother knows me. (Correct)

1. He washed neither his hands or his feet. (Incorrect)
2. He washed neither his hands nor his feet. (Correct)

Study carefully the following : Correct Usage of The Conjunctions

1. No other but she could have done it. (Incorrect)
2. No other than she could have done it. (Correct)

1. I want to know as to why she came here. (Incorrect)
2. I want to know why she came here. (Correct)

1. Because he did not work therefore he failed. (Incorrect)
2. Because he did not work, he failed. (Correct)

1. Supposing if he fails, what will she do? (Incorrect)
2. Supposing he fails, what will she do? (Correct)


RATHER THAN & OTHER THAN

THAN follows Adjectives in the Comparative and also RATHER and OTHER.

1. I would rather have the picture than the pen. (Correct)
2. He is no other than my brother. (Correct)
3. He had no other object than to get his money. (Correct)

In contracted sentences Conjunctions are often wrongly omitted after Adjectives.

1. He is more polite but not so kind-hearted as his father. (Incorrect)
2. He is more polite than, but not so kind-hearted as his father. (Correct)
3. He is more polite than his father, but not so kind-hearted. (Correct)

1. He is as good if not better than his brother. (Incorrect)
2. He is as good as, if not better than, his brother. (Correct)
3. He is as good as his brother, if not better. (Correct)

Related Topics :

  1. Correct Usage of The Conjunctions - NEITHER and NOR
  2. Correct Usage of The Conjunctions - EXCEPT and WITHOUT
  3. Correct Usage of The Conjunctions - AS LONG AS and WHILE
  4. Correct Usage of The Conjunctions - UNLESS and IF
  5. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - NO SOONER THAN
  6. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - SCARCELY BEFORE
  7. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - SCARCELY WHEN
  8. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - HARDLY BEFORE
  9. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - HARDLY WHEN
  10. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - UNTIL
  11. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - WHILE
  12. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - BECAUSE
  13. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - IN ORDER THAT
  14. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - SO THAT
  15. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - SINCE
  16. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - BEFORE
  17. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - THAT
  18. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - BUT
  19. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - LEST
  20. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - LIKE
  21. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - RATHER THAN
  22. Correct Usage of The Conjunction - OTHER THAN




Correct Usage of The Conjunctions


Correct Usage of The Conjunctions



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