Direct Speech to Indirect Speech



Direct Speech to Indirect Speech :



For the working out of Rule I in detail, the following special rules must be observed.

(a) The Present Tense (in the Reported Speech) must be changed to its corresponding Past form.

(b) The Past Simple (in the Reported Speech) is often, but not necessarily, changed to the Past Perfect.

(c) The Past Continuous (in the Reported Speech) must be changed to the Past Perfect Continuous.

(a) Change the Present Tense (in the Reported Speech) into its corresponding Past form.

Thus…

SHALL is changed into SHOULD.
WILL is changed into WOULD.
MAY is changed into MIGHT.
CAN is changed into COULD.
COME is changed into CAME.
IS COMING is changed into WAS COMING.
HAS COME is changed into HAD COME.
HAS BEEN COMING is changed into HAD BEEN COMING.

Direct Speech : He said, "The man shall come."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man should come.
Direct Speech : He said, "The man will come."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man would come.
Direct Speech : He said, "The man may come."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man might come.
Direct Speech : He said, "The man can come."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man could come.
Direct Speech : He said, "The man comes."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man came.
Direct Speech : He said, "The man is coming."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man was coming.
Direct Speech : He said, "The man has come."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man had come.
Direct Speech : He said, "The man has been coming."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man had been coming.

Direct Speech : And Jacob said, "It is enough. My son Joseph is yet alive. I will go and see him before I die."

Indirect Speech : And Jacob said that it was enough and that his son Joseph was yet alive and that he would go and see him before he died.

Direct Speech : And David said, "The man who hath done this thing deserveth to die and he shall restore the lamb fourfold."

Indirect Speech : And David said that the man who had done that thing deserved to die and that he should restore the lamb fourfold.

(b) Change the Past Simple (in the Reported Speech) into the Past Perfect.

Direct Speech : He said, "The man came at six."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man had come at six.

Direct Speech : He said, "Rain fell yesterday."
Indirect Speech : He said that the rain has fallen yesterday.

(c) The Past Continuous (in the Reported Speech) must be changed to the Past Perfect Continuous.

Direct Speech : He said, "The man was coming."
Indirect Speech : He said that the man had been coming.

Direct Speech : He said, "Rain was falling yesterday."
Indirect Speech : He said that rain had been falling yesterday.



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