Direct Speech to Indirect Speech



Direct Speech to Indirect Speech :



There is a rule to be followed while converting direct speech into indirect speech. If the Reporting Verb is a Past Tense, the Tense of the Verb in the Reported Speech must be changed to one or other of the four forms of the Past Tense. There is an exception to this rule.

If the Reported Speech relates to some universal or habitual fact, then the Present Simple in the Reported Speech is not changed into the corresponding Past, but remains exactly as it was.

Direct Speech : He said, "We cannot be quite happy in this life."
Indirect Speech : He said that we cannot be quite happy in this life.

Direct Speech : He said, "The earth moves round the sun."
Indirect Speech : He said that the earth moves round the sun.

Direct Speech : He said, "God rules and governs all things."
Indirect Speech : He said that God rules and governs all things.

Direct Speech : He reminded me, "When the cat is away, the mice play."
Indirect Speech : He reminded me that when the cat is away, the mice play.

In the Reported Speech, when the Present Tense is changed into the Past by Rule mentioned above, an Adjective, Verb or Adverb expressing nearness is similarly changed into one expressing distance.

Thus as a general rule we change…..

1. Now into then
2. This into that
3. These into those
4. Hither into thither
5. Come into go
6. Today that day
7. Tomorrow the next day
8. Here into there
9. Hence into thence
10. Thus into so
11. Yesterday into the previous day
12. Last night into the previous night
13. Ago into before

Examples in Sentences :

Direct Speech : He said, "I will leave you now."
Indirect Speech : He said that he would leave them then.

Direct Speech : He said, "I will come here."
Indirect Speech : He said that he would go there.

Direct Speech : He said, "I have seen this man.”
Indirect Speech : He said that he had seen that man.

Direct Speech : He said, "I saw this man long ago."
Indirect Speech : He said that he had seen that man long before.

But if THIS, HERE, NOW, etc., refers to some object, place or time that is present to the speaker during the delivery of the speech, then no change of Adjective or Adverb is made in the Reported Speech.

Direct Speech : Gobind said, "This is my coat."
Indirect Speech : Gobind said that this (the coat in his hand) was his coat.

Direct Speech : Gobind said, "I will do it now or never."
Indirect Speech : Gobind said that he would do it now or never.

Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives of the First and Second Persons are changed to the Third Person.

Direct Speech : He said, "1 am right."
Indirect Speech : He said that he was right.


Direct Speech : The employer said to the workman, "I cannot pay you higher wages."

Indirect Speech : The employer told the workman that he could not pay him higher wages.


Direct Speech : The prince said to the girl, "I know you and your mother."
Indirect Speech : The prince told the girl that he knew her and her mother.

However, if the person addressed reports the speech, Second Persons are changed to First.

Direct Speech : He said to me, 'You are getting lazy."
Indirect Speech : He told me that I was getting lazy.

Direct Speech : Rama said to me, “You have made a mistake."
Indirect Speech : Rama told me that I had made a mistake.



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Direct Speech to Indirect Speech