Intransitive Verbs in A Causal Sense



Intransitive Verbs in A Causal Sense :



Intransitive Verbs

The verbs which do not need objects to carry out their action are called by this name.

1. He laughs.
2. They walk.
3. She sees.

Laugh, wake, sit, go, see, walk and cry are few of the Intransitive Verbs.

Intransitive Verbs of Complete Predication

This is the name given to any Intransitive Verb which makes complete sense by itself and does not require any word or words to be added to it for this purpose.

1. Rivers flow.
2. Winds blow.
3. Horses run.
4. Birds fly.
5. All animals die.

Intransitive Verbs of Incomplete Predication

This is the name given to those Intransitive Verbs which do not make complete sense by themselves, but require a Complement to supply what the verb has left unsaid.

The Complement to Intransitive Verbs may be in the same kinds of form as the Complement to Transitive Verbs.

Subject… Verb…Complement

1. A horse is a four-legged animal. (Noun)
2. That beggar turned out a thief. (Noun)
3. The man has fallen sick. (Adjective)
4. The dog went mad. (Adjective)
5. The man appears pleased. (Participle)
6. The stag continued running and jumping. (Participle)
7. Your coat is of many colours. (Preposition with Object)
8. That book proved of no use. (Preposition with Object)
9. The flower seems to be fading. (Infinitive)
10. YOU appear to have forgotten me. (Infinitive)
11. The man has fallen asleep. (Adverb Clause)
12. The results are what we expected. (Adverb Clause)

When the Complement comes after an Intransitive Verb, it is called a Subjective Complement, because it relates to the Subject.

But when it comes after a Transitive Verb in the Active Voice, it is called an Objective Complement, because it relates to the Object.

The Cognate Object

An Intransitive Verb, though it is never followed by a Noun denoting an outside or foreign Object, may sometimes be followed by a Noun already implied more or less in the Verb itself.

Thus we can say 'He has lived a sad life', where the Noun life is implied already in the Verb 'lived', and is in fact part of its meaning.

Such Objects are called Cognate or kindred, because the Noun denoting them is of kindred meaning to that of the Verb itself.

There are four different forms of Cognate Object.

(a) Cognate Noun formed directly from the Verb.

1. He laughed a hearty laugh.
2. He died a sad death.
3. He lived a long life.
4. He fought a good fight.
5. He slept a sound sleep.
6. He prayed an earnest prayer.
7. He sighed a deep sigh.
8. He sang a fine song.

(b) Cognate Noun of similar meaning.

1. He went a long way.
2. He fought a good battle.
3. He struck a deadly blow.
4. He ran his own course.
5. It blows a brisk gale.
6. The bells ring a merry peal.

(c) A Noun descriptive of the Cognate Noun understood.

1. They shouted applause. (They shouted a shout of applause.)

2. He served his apprenticeship. (He served his service as an apprentice.)

3. He ran a great risk. (He ran a course of great risk.)

4. He played the fool. (He played the part of a fool.)

(d) An Adjective qualifying the Cognate Noun understood.

1. He shouted his loudest (shout).
2. He ran his fastest (run or pace).
3. He fought his best (fight).
4. She sang her sweetest (song).
5. He breathed his last (breath).
6. He tried his hardest (trial or attempt).

Intransitive Verbs in A Causal Sense :

If an Intransitive Verb is used in the sense of causing a thing to be done, it becomes Transitive. Of these there are only a few examples in English.

Intransitive…. Causal

1. The kite flew in the air…..He flew the kite.(=caused it to fly).

2. The soldiers marched out…. He marched out the soldiers.

3. Wheat grows in the field…. He grows wheat in the field.

4. The boat floated….He floated the boat.

There are a few Intransitive Verbs in which the causal sense is indicated by some change of vowel.

There are a few Intransitive Verbs in which the causal sense is indicated by some change of vowel.

Intransitive…. Transitive or Causal

1. The tree falls…. He fells the tree with an axe.
2. The sun will rise at six…. I cannot rouse this boy.
3. The cow lies on the grass…. The man lays down his coat.
4. We must not sit here….He set the books in order.

Prepositional Verbs

An Intransitive Verb can be made Transitive by having a Preposition added to it.

Such Verbs may be considered to be real Transitives provided they can be used in the Passive Voice.

1. No one ever thought of such a thing. (Active)
2. Such a thing was never thought of. (Passive)

When the Verb is in the Passive Voice, the OF cannot be parsed as a Preposition, since there is no Object to it. It must therefore be parsed as part of the Verb itself.

In Prepositional Verbs, the Preposition is almost always placed after the Verb. But WITH and OVER are often placed before it.

1. He withstood (stood against, endured) the attack.
2. He was overcome (defeated) by the enemy.
3. The field is overgrown (covered) with weeds.

All these Verbs, when they are used apart from the Preposition, are Intransitive. It is the Preposition which makes them Transitive.

Summary

There are thus two ways in which an Intransitive Verb can become Transitive.

(1) when it is used in a causal sense…

(2) when it is connected with a Preposition so closely that the Verb, compounded with the Preposition, can be made Passive.

RELATED PAGES :



  1. The Verb
  2. Kinds of Verbs
  3. Object to The Verb
  4. Subject of The Verb
  5. Transitive Verbs
  6. Forms of The Object and Transitive Verb
  7. Position of The Object and Transitive Verb
  8. Noun as The Object of The Transitive Verb
  9. Pronoun as The Object of The Transitive Verb
  10. Infinitive as The Object of The Transitive Verb
  11. Gerund as The Object of The Transitive Verb
  12. Phrase as The Object of The Transitive Verb
  13. Clause as The Object of The Transitive Verb
  14. Relative Pronoun and Transitive Verb
  15. Interrogative Pronoun and Transitive Verb
  16. Double Objects and Transitive Verbs
  17. Direct Objects and Transitive Verbs
  18. Indirect Objects and Transitive Verbs
  19. Transitive Verbs of Incomplete Predication
  20. Complement
  21. Forms of Complement
  22. Omission of The Relative as Object
  23. Transitive Verbs used Intransitively
  24. Intransitive Verbs
  25. Intransitive Verbs of Incomplete Predication
  26. Intransitive Verbs of Complete Predication
  27. Subjective Complement
  28. Objective Complement
  29. Cognate or Kindred
  30. Cognate Noun
  31. Cognate Object
  32. Prepositional Verbs
  33. Object to Active Verb
  34. Subject to Passive Verb
  35. Agent of The Verb
  36. Retained Object of The Verb in Active Voice
  37. The Direct Object of the Active Verb
  38. The Indirect Object of the Active Verb
  39. The Infinitive Mood of Verbs
  40. Sixteen Forms of A Verb
  41. Sixteen Forms of A Verb in Active Voice
  42. Sixteen Forms of A Verb in Passive Voice
  43. Do and Did


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