Metonymy or the substitution of the thing named for the thing meant. The prefix META means substitution.
The sign for the thing signified :
1. He succeeded to the crown = the monarchy.
2. He is too fond of red-tape = official routine.
3. Show deference to the chair = the chairman's ruling.
4. Promoted to the bench = the office of judge).
5. From the cradle to the grave = from childhood to death.
6. Leather (= shoe-making) pays better than learning.
7. Grey hairs (= old age or old men) should be respected.
8. The crown would not yield to the mitre. (= The king would not yield to the bishop).
9. How shall we attract men to the colours (= the army).
10. Sceptre and crown (= kings and emperors) Must tumble down. (Shirley)
The instrument for the agent :
1. He is a good hand at composition.
2. Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice = Pay heed to what every man says, but say little yourself.
3. The pen is mightier than the sword - Those who us the pen have more influence than those who use the sword.
The container for the thing contained :
1. He drank the cup = the contents of the cup.
2. He is too fond of the bottle = the liquor contained the bottle.
3. The conquerors smote the city = the inhabitants of the city.
4. The gallery (= spectators in the gallery) applaude loudly.
An effect for a cause, or a cause for an effect :
1. I am not fond of Euclid (=geometry).
2. I have never read Homer = the works of Homer.
3. for a beaker full of the warm south! (Keats)
(Here wine is indicated by the warm south - that is the warm sun of the south which ripens the grape from which the wine is produced).
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