Past Participles but Adjectives



Past Participles but Adjectives :



The forms bounden, cloven, drunken, gotten, shrunken and sunken are now used only as adjectives and not as past participles.


bounden : (adjective) [becoming rare]
- necessary
- obligatory
1. It is our bounden duty to protect our parents.


bound : to cause to obey - especially by law or a solemn promise
- put under an obligation.
1. I am bound by my promise.
2. They bound him to remain silent.


drunken : (adjective) - drunk
- a drunken sailor
- resulting from or connected with too much drinking of alcohol
- a drunken sleep
- a drunken party
1. I met a drunken monk.


drunk : [past participle of DRINK] - (adjective)
- under the influence of alcohol
1. The police charged him with being drunk and disorderly.


gotten : [past participle of GET] - (adjective)
ill-gotten : (adjective) - obtained by dishonest means
1. The son refused to have anything to do with his father's ill-gotten wealth.
2. Most of our ministers enjoy only ill-gotten wealth.


got : past tense and past participle - of GET
- possess
1. I have got a new car.
2. I have bought a new car.
3. I have bought one.
4. He has got the minister's post somehow.


shrunken : (adjective) - having been shrunk (shrink)
[past tense - past participle of shrink]
[shrink - shrank - shrunk]
1. They kept the shrunken heads of their enemies as war trophies.
2. There is a further decline in our already shrunken motor industry.


shrunk :
1. The number of students has shrunk from 100 to 25.


sunken : (adjective) [which has been sunk]
- a sunken ship
- a sunken treasure
- hollow - having fallen inwards (especially) because of tired old age - illness
- sunken eyes / cheek
- a sunken garden
- a sunken bath
1. They were able to salvage the sunken ship.


sunk : (past tense and past participle of SINK)
disappeared completely from public eye
1. The ship was sunk by an enemy torpedo.
2. That actress, you used to admire, seems to have sunk without trace.


beholden : (adjective)
- having to feel grateful or under an obligation - (to)
1. I like to do things for myself and not beholden to anyone else.
2. I am much beholden to you.


bid : (verb) to offer to pay (a price) for goods or to charge (a price) for one's work or services - (to offer a price) (eg) at an auction
Present Tense : bid
Past Tense : bid
Past Participle : bid
1. He bid Rs.100 for an old book at the auction.
2. Several companies are bidding for the contract to build the bridge.


cloven - Past participle of cleave
1. Cows, sheep and goats have cloven hoofs.
(Each foot divided into two parts)

Past Participles but Adjectives



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