Present and Past Participles



Present and Past Participles :



The verb in the ING form is known as the present participle.

The boy is drinking water.

is drinking — present continuous tense
drinking - present participle

The boy was drinking water.

was drinking - past continuous tense
drinking - present participle

The boy will be drinking water.

will be drinking - future continuous tense
drinking - present participle

As you can see, whether the tense is present, past or future, the verb + ING is known as the present participle and is used for the continuous tenses.

Let us now go further and learn about the perfect tense.

The three perfect tenses in English are the three verb tenses which show action already completed.

They are formed by the appropriate tense of the verb to have + the past participle of the verb.

Present Perfect : Present tense of TO HAVE + participle

1. I have seen it.

The action is completed with respect to the present.

Past Perfect : Past tense of TO HAVE + participle

1. I had seen it.

The action is completed with respect to the past.

Future Perfect : Future tense of TO HAVE + participle

1. I will have seen it.

The action is completed with respect to the future.

Generally, we form the past participle by adding ED or EN.

For example :

1. I call the girl.
2. I have called the girl.
3. I had called the girl.
4. I will have called the girl.

1. I write a book.
2. I have written a book.
3. I had written a book.
4. 1 will have written a book.

Let us now learn how to use this tense.

As we saw earlier, the perfect tense is formed by using the present, past or future tense of have with the verb in its ED or EN form.

For example :

1. The boys have eaten the sandwiches.

In this sentence, the verb is HAVE EATEN. We formed this verb by writing have (a form of TO HAVE and eaten (eat + en).

Let us take a look at a few more sentences.

1. Jayesh had given us some sweets.
2. The birds will have flown to warmer countries by now.
3. I have finished reading Robinson Crusoe.

Some verbs that take ED to form past participles are…

Verb….Past participle

1. Touch….touched
2. Call….called
3. Walk….walked
4. Jump….jumped

Some verbs that take EN to form past participles are…

Verb….Past participle

1. Write….written
2. Drive….driven
3. Eat….eaten
4. Fall….fallen
5. Forget….forgotten

Some verbs that have a totally different past participle form are…

Verb….Past participle

1. Blow….blown
2. Draw….drawn
3. Break….broken
4. Do….done
5. Be….been

Some verbs do not change at all in the past participle form. Few of such verbs are….

Verb….Past participle

1. Cut…cut
2. Put…put
3. Burst….burst
4. Shut….shut
5. Spread….spread



Present and Past Participles



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